Articulation (Speech Sounds) & Phonology

Articulation is the movement of parts of the mouth such as the tongue, lips, and jaw that enable us to produce sounds or pronounce words.

Phonology refers to errors in speech patterns rather than just on one particular sound. For example, a child may substitute a short sound (e.g. p, t, d) for a longer sound (e.g. f, s, z, sh).

By the time a child is 3 years old, his/her speech should be easily understood. It is normal for children make mistakes when they are learning to speak. However, if a child has errors or error patterns that persist beyond certain age ranges, he/she may benefit from speech therapy. Some children have significant difficulties and their speech may be unclear or even very difficult to understand. I will assess your child’s articulation/phonology and help you to determine whether he/she would benefit from speech therapy.